# Fold functions¶

Fold functions 0 reduce an iterable to a single value.

## Built-ins¶

There are several instances of fold functions Python library:

`all()`

, reduces the iterable based on the truthiness of all elements.`any()`

, reduces the iterable based on the truthiness of all elements.`len()`

, reduces the iterable to the number of all elements. Does not work with generators!`max()`

, reduces the iterable to the maximum of all elements.`min()`

, reduces the iterable to the minimum of all elements.`sum()`

, reduces the iterable to the sum of all elements.

and also several fold operators:

the boolean

`and`

and`or`

operator.the mathematical operators

`+`

,`-`

,`*`

,`/`

,`//`

,`%`

and`**`

.the bitwise operators

`<<`

,`>>`

,`|`

,`^`

and`&`

.the comparison operators

`<`

,`<=`

,`==`

,`!=`

,`>=`

,`>`

.

## Builtin Library functions¶

`functools.reduce()`

, reduces the iterable by successively applying a binary function.

`functools.reduce()`

is probably the most general function that could be
used to recreate all the builtin functions. For example:

`reduce(lambda x, y: x and y, iterable)`

is equivalent to`all()`

`reduce(lambda x, y: x or y, iterable)`

is equivalent to`any()`

`reduce(lambda x, y: x + y, iterable)`

is equivalent to`sum()`

`reduce(lambda x, y: x if x < y else y, iterable)`

is equivalent to`min()`

`reduce(lambda x, y: x if x > y else y, iterable)`

is equivalent to`max()`

`reduce(lambda x, y: x + 1, iterable, 0)`

is equivalent to`len()`

Warning

These `functools.reduce()`

functions are much slower than the
built-ins!

There are several other fold functions in the standard library and in third-party packages, most notably:

## Additional¶

The `iteration_utilities`

package includes some additional fold functions:

`all_distinct()`

, reduces the iterable to a boolean value indicating if all the items are distinct.`all_equal()`

, reduces the iterable to a boolean value indicating if all the items are equal.`all_monotone()`

, reduces the iterable to a boolean value indicating if all the items are (strictly) bigger or smaller than their predecessor.`argmax()`

, reduces the iterable to the index of the maximum.`argmin()`

, reduces the iterable to the index of the minimum.`count_items()`

, reduces the iterable to the number of (matching) items.`minmax()`

, reduces the iterable to a tuple containing the minimum and maximum value.`nth()`

, reduces the iterable to it’s nth value.`first()`

, reduces the iterable to it’s first value. See also`nth()`

.`second()`

, reduces the iterable to it’s second value. See also`nth()`

.`third()`

, reduces the iterable to it’s third value. See also`nth()`

.`last()`

, reduces the iterable to it’s last value. See also`nth()`

.`nth_combination()`

, creates the*nth*combination from the elements in the iterable without having to create the previous combinations.

## Helper functions¶

Included in the `iteration_utilities`

package are several helper functions
that are based on normal Python code but chosen to evaluate faster than
alternatives:

`all_isinstance()`

, reduces the iterable to the truthiness of`isinstance()`

applied to all items.`any_isinstance()`

, reduces the iterable to the truthiness of`isinstance()`

applied to all items.`dotproduct()`

, reduces two iterables to the result of the dotproduct.

## Fold to other data structure¶

Most fold functions reduce an iterable by discarding most of the iterable.
However `iteration_utilities`

includes functions that discard no
elements or only a few:

`argsorted()`

, create a list of indices that would sort the iterable.`groupedby()`

, create a dictionary containing lists representing the groups of values of the iterable.`heapq.nlargest()`

, create a list containing the n largest items.`heapq.nsmallest()`

, create a list containing the n smallest items.`partition()`

, create a list containing the items which do not fulfill some predicate and one containing the items that do.`sorted()`

, create a sorted list from an iterable.

This list contains some builtin Python functions for completeness.

## Short-circuit functions¶

Short-circuit functions 5 stop as soon as the exit condition is met. These functions can yield significant speedups over functions that eagerly process the operand.

There are several instances of short-circuit functions Python library:

`all()`

, stops as soon as one item in the iterable is falsy.`any()`

, stops as soon as one item in the iterable is truthy.`next()`

, get the next item of an iterable.

and also two short-circuit operators:

`and`

, evaluates the right side only if the left side is truthy.`or`

, evaluates the right side only if the left side is falsy.

`iteration_utilities`

includes some additional short-circuit functions:

`all_distinct()`

, stops as soon as a duplicate item is found.`all_equal()`

, stops as soon as a deviating item is found.`all_monotone()`

, stops as soon as a item is found violating monotony.`one()`

, get the one and only item of an iterable.`nth()`

, stops after the nth item.`first()`

, like`nth()`

this function stops after the first item.`second()`

, like`nth()`

this function stops after the second item.`third()`

, like`nth()`

this function stops after the third item.

Included in the `iteration_utilities`

package are several helper functions
that are based on normal Python code but chosen to evaluate faster than
alternatives:

`all_isinstance()`

, stops as soon as one item is not an instance of the specified types.`any_isinstance()`

, stops as soon as one item is an instance of the specified types.